The Usefulness of DIY Reflectors

One tool photographers can use to great effect is a reflector. Not only does it serve to help illuminate dark areas, but you can also make some with items that you already have at home.

If you have only one light source, reflectors can provide fill light by bouncing off the light to the darker portions of the subject or the scene. Reflectors are also used as a solution to the not so pleasing effect of flash directly hitting the subject, causing too much brightness on the façade and hard shadows in the background. The flash can be bounced off at the reflector instead and the light is reflected at the subject in a more diffused way.

reflector The Usefulness of DIY ReflectorsReflectors are usually made up of big flat sheets that are colored white, gold or silver. These ‘sheets’ can be bed sheets, table cloths, illustration boards, plywood covered in aluminum foil, foam boards, pillow cases, and the like. If your subject is small, then a white sheet of paper or even tissue will do. Bear in mind that some of these sheets, such as the ones made of cloth, will have the tendency to crease or move with the wind. You can make them sturdier and more stretched out by framing them or you can get someone to assist you in holding the edges during the shoot. Aside from being accessible, reflectors are portable and they use up no power at all. They offer additional illumination by reflecting the light from your light source.

As mentioned earlier, reflectors are often colored white, silver or gold. Each color has a corresponding effect. White is neutral because it just reflects without making any changes. Silver provides cool tones while gold reflects warm tones. The colors also impact the hardness or softness of the reflected light. Again, white does not affect the light intensity, it just bounces whatever is reflected off it.  However, silver and gold reflectors give off harder light.

Aside from color, the size and shape of reflectors also influence how the extra light falls on the composition. Large reflectors give off softer and more diffused light while small reflectors provide more focused and harder light. Some reflectors like thin opaque plastic are flexible and can be bent to diffuse or to focus the bounced off light.

You can use these reflectors in your studio or on location. Next time you take pictures of people outdoors, try using a reflector to bounce the sunlight to light up the dimmer areas. For example, if the sun is behind your subject, a reflector can be used to light up the subject’s face which would otherwise be shadowed. They would also be ideal with still life shots. A white piece of cardboard can light up the shadowy areas of objects without you having to look for an additional light source.


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5 Fantastic and Free iPhone Photo Apps

There are hundreds of photo apps in the App Store and sometimes, it can be quite an effort to sift through them all to get the ones you think will be most useful. I wrote previously about five fantastic paid iPhone photo apps and it’s about time I mentioned some free photo apps with rather impressive features.

Impression 277x300 5 Fantastic and Free iPhone Photo AppsImpression – this app adds a watermark to your image which can have several uses. iPhone photos may be easily copied without your consent once you upload them in the internet. A watermark acts as a deterrent and makes people think twice before grabbing the photo. The watermark of this app can also be anything, from your name, to a short phrase, to a photo title, as long as it is no more than 60 characters. You also have the option to add the copyright symbol or not. The text size can be adjusted by pinching or stretching the text and you may also adjust its opacity and placement in the image. Just be aware that it will save to the original shot so use a copy image if you want the original to be left untouched.

PS Mobile – if you want an efficient and user friendly photo editing app, then this app from the makers of Adobe Photoshop could be what you’re looking for. It doesn’t have that many features but then it’s free so I can’t complain at all. Most of the tools are basic for quick editing such as crop, rotate, flip, and exposure, saturation and tint adjustment settings. It also has several filters and effects such as Vibrant and Soft Black and White. Once you’re done editing, you may upload it to photoshop.com, its website where you can set up an account and get a free 2 GB worth of photo storage. This app is so easy to understand that even if you have never used it or Photoshop before, you’ll quickly get the hang of it.

iRetouch Lite – this is one photo editing app that’s quite a powerhouse even though it is free. It has several editing tools such as smudge and clone stamp, and you can adjust the image brightness, color and hue, among many things. From selective desaturation to blemish removal, this app is great for spot editing. The buttons do polarize 255x300 5 Fantastic and Free iPhone Photo Appsneed some getting used to and your hand needs to be steady since the slightest flick of your finger while editing can affect the image.

Polarize – if you miss the days of the Polaroid camera, you can download the Polarize app and create images that look as if you were using the real deal. This app takes the image in a square format and adds a border where you can write a tag or caption (14 characters max) below the image. Most of the images from this app end up with a soft blue green color cast just like how images from Polaroids would look. The effect can appear vintage and make one become quite nostalgic.

GorillaCam – from Joby, the creators of the Gorillapod, that flexible tripod, comes an app packed with features that can seldom be found in other photo apps. Among its many features is a self-timer, a time-lapse function, a ‘press anywhere’ capability which means your whole screen becomes one giant shutter release button, and an unlimited rapid-fire so you can now take pictures at high speed just by keeping the shutter button pressed. If your iPhone is 3G or 3GS, you will find the separate accessory, Gorillamobile, handy as it is a flexible tripod specifically designed for the iPhone.

 

 

 


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5 Paid iPhone Photo Apps Guaranteed to Add Pizzazz to Your Shot

You might feel overwhelmed with the number of photo apps in the iPhone App Store. I know I was, so I did some research and downloaded some (okay, a lot) of photo apps in my quest to search for the perfect photo app that has everything I wanted and needed. After some time I realized there is no such perfect photo app. However, there are some which can do only a few things but do them extremely well. Here are five paid iPhone photo apps which I tested and now can’t do without. They are well worth the price of a few dollars for they greatly boost the bland shots I’m getting from my iPhone 2MP camera.

dustpan  5 Paid iPhone Photo Apps Guaranteed to Add Pizzazz to Your Shot1.  SwankoLab ($1.99) – long before anyone could conceive of the idea of digital processing, the photographer’s darkroom existed. It was a place of alchemy where images appeared from blank paper or plastic film with the use of chemicals. Darkroom magic has been recreated with the SwankoLab app. The visuals are very appealing with the rich dark wooden shelf that holds various chemicals which you can mix unto the processing tray below. Experiment with eight various formulas and watch your images materialize in different effects depending on which chemicals you chose. Nine more chemicals are available with an additional one time $1.99 subscription fee. Not bad at all considering the number of combinations you can use.

2.  Hipstamatic ($1.99) – From the creators of SwankoLab is a camera replacement app which allows you to imitate vintage toy lenses such as the John S lens and the Kaimal Mark II lens. You can also choose from a variety of lenses and flash settings, all with just a flick of your finger. When you open the app, the screen displays an image which simulates the back (or front, if you press the flip icon) of an analog camera, including a small square viewfinder. This viewfinder is not precise, so what you see is not usually what you get. The experience of this randomness adds to the appeal of the app. You will have to take a picture for the app to be used, unlike some photo apps where you can use images already saved in your photo library. Hipstamatic saves the images in a square format and the results from the filters can be very moody and unique. More filters and lenses are available in what is called ‘HipstaPaks’ which you can purchase from within the app.

3.  Photo Forge ($2.99) – if you’re looking for a photo editing app which will answer most of your needs, then this could be it. This app packs quite a punch, having extensive features to help tweak your image to your satisfaction. It offers very useful adjustment tools such as the unsharp mask, crop tool, levels and RGB curves. It also has several effects such as Lomo, Dreamy and Vignette. On top of that, it provides illustration tools as well such as brushes with color and transparency options.

catcamerabag 5 Paid iPhone Photo Apps Guaranteed to Add Pizzazz to Your Shot4.  CameraBag ($1.99) – this camera replacement app simulates several effects that you would get from various cameras and lenses.  These presets vary from Helga, to Colorcross to Fisheye. You may take a picture or get one from your camera roll or photo library. To change the effect, just swipe your finger left or right and you’ll immediately see the various results. What could be easier than that?

5.  Best Camera ($2.99) – what better iPhone photo app developer than a professional photographer?  When Chase Jarvis decided to make an app, he wanted to make sure it did everything an iPhoneographer was looking for.  You can use Best Camera to take a picture, edit it using 14 presets, and then upload it straight to Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, thebestcamera.com website or to your email. That’s quite a lot of features in one app, which makes this one of the top rated photo apps in the App Store.


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5 Helpful Tips in Shooting Your Used Camera Gear For Selling

old slr by ilco 5 Helpful Tips in Shooting Your Used Camera Gear For SellingWith new great photography gear improving faster than our wallets can keep up with, it’s always smart to sell our older equipment when upgrading to a newer, better one. But in doing so, it would be even better to get a fair price for the things we paid hard earned cash for not so long ago.

By using your own photography skills, you’ll discover that having a good photograph of the item you’re selling online will get you a fair, if not great, market price. The key is to take good product shots as if you’re creating an actual ad for a product because you are doing just that. Treat your older model camera as if you were taking a studio shot of it.

With things you most likely already have at home, and a few more helpful tips, you can start commanding reasonable prices that won’t make you think twice about the depreciation of value of your equipment and will make you feel less guilty when you move on to your next upgrade.

Just follow these 5 easy steps for taking great product shots for your used photography equipment.

analog by blackcat79 5 Helpful Tips in Shooting Your Used Camera Gear For Selling

1.   Use a plain backdrop to avoid background distractions . If you have a plain white cloth or a white poster board, as long as it’s clean, you can keep reusing it for each product shot you take for many years. Black cloth is even better. You won’t have to worry about dirt, as long as your background complements the color contrast of your product.

2.  Only include all the accessories that you’re willing to part with in the sale of the product. When you buy anything, always keep in mind that you might be reselling it a year or so from the time you bought it. Remember to always keep the manual and basically everything that came with the package.

3.  Take a separate picture of the box if you still have it. When selling your used gear, your chances of getting a better price for your item is better when you sell it with its original packaging. Having a place in your home to store the boxes of the equipment you plan to sell when you’re ready for a new one will help you in the future.

old cam by creationc 5 Helpful Tips in Shooting Your Used Camera Gear For Selling4.  Make use of any available lighting you have at home. Any simple table lamp would suffice and a white cardboard would give you the fill you need for a good shot. You can even make a simple light tent with old boxes you have lying around. This would give you the perfect shadowless product shots you’ll need to get top dollar for your item.

5.  Take close up shots and full shots of the product. It won’t cost you extra to post several shots in an online ad as long as it’s within the limit. Show as much detail of the product as possible in your close-up shots. For any normal wear and tear, make sure it’s evident that potential buyers will see that it’s nothing more than superficial scratches.


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Understanding the Various Camera Lens Filters

A camera lens filter is an accessory that allows photographers to have more control over the images they capture. These filters can either be round or square in shape, made of glass or plastic, and can either be screwed or clipped in place in front of the lens. Although, filter effects can be copied in common editing software techniques, actual filters will give much better results and some are very difficult to reproduce. Here are some popular filter types with their various uses and advantages that can help you create better images.

Filter Types:

filter2 Understanding the Various Camera Lens FiltersLinear and circular polarizers – these filters reduce glare and boost saturation. Usually used in landscape photography where skies, greenery, and water are the main subjects.

Neutral Density (ND) filters – this is often colorless or gray in shade and modifies the intensity of all wavelengths or colors of light in equal measure, while leaving the color hues intact. With an ND filter, you have more options to play with the exposure settings. For example, if you want to have a motion blur effect of a waterfall and there is bright sunlight, you can use this filter instead of decreasing aperture size (to lessen the amount of light entering the sensor). This means you do not have to sacrifice depth of field to capture the image.

Graduated Neutral Density (GND) filters – this is great for lessening the possibility of vignetting and helps control light gradients. This kind of filter is divided into a darker side and a lighter side and the division in the middle, which blends these two shades, varies from soft to hard. This is often used for landscapes that show a dramatic change in lighting, such as a bright sky above a dark row of trees.

filter3 Understanding the Various Camera Lens FiltersUV/Haze – a very useful all-around filter and protects the lens as well. This was often used with film cameras to cut the atmospheric haze that could be captured in the image. Since digital cameras are much less sensitive to UV rays, this filter serves the purpose of general protection of the lens.

Cooling/Warming filters – these filters are used to alter the white balance of the scene. They have cool or warm colored tints. Ideal for underwater images, landscape shots and images that make use of special lighting.

filter7 polar1 Understanding the Various Camera Lens FiltersPolarizers or polarizing filter – this enhances landscape images by cutting down on the intensity of reflected light that goes through to the camera’s sensor. Much like polarized sunglasses, it makes the sky and water seem a deeper blue, and makes the trees and other plants, and even rocks a more vibrant color saturation that increases the visual appeal of images.. It reduces glare and reflections from water and other reflective surfaces as well as decreases the contrasts between the skies and the ground.

As advantageous as polarizing filters can be, be careful because it can also greatly diminish the amount of light that reaches your camera’s sensor by at least 2 to3 f-stops, which is about ¼ to 1/8 amount of light. You might need to compensate for this by using a slower shutter speed or using a bigger lens opening.  Moreover, using polarizers in wide angled lenses may create unbalanced or skies that look visibly darker than usual.


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Tips on How to Avoid Camera Sensor Dust

The sensor of a DSLR camera can quickly become dirty if untended since the lens is removable. This provides a lot of instances when dust can get in. Although you can easily remove specks of dirt and dust from your image in post processing, it’s just as easy and actually better for the camera to prevent these particles from landing on the sensor in the first place. I’ve gathered quite a few simple yet effective tips which professional photographers use to avoid sensor dust:

lens and cleaner by garytamin1 Tips on How to Avoid Camera Sensor Dust Keep your camera bag very clean, all the time. Regularly vacuum the interior if you can. 

Make sure your lenses are always squeaky clean. A lot of sensor dust comes from dirty lenses, especially when they’re being used to focus or to zoom.

Be very careful when changing lenses of a DSLR. It is during this time that the chances of dust entering the camera are at its highest. The trick is to do the lens change as quickly as possible (but be careful you don’t drop the lens!) 

Stay away from your pets while you’re changing the lens. One tiny strand of dog fur can be very harmful to the sensor. 

Do the lens change in a place that’s not windy or drafty, preferably indoors. If you’re at the beach or on a windy parking lot, go in a building or a car to swap lenses.

Turn off your camera and point it straight down as you change the lens. 

Use a big blower bulb to blow off dust found on the camera mirror or shutter area.

If you have no choice but to change lenses outdoors and there’s a breeze, you can try turning your back to the wind so your body is blocking it and shielding the lens mount. 

blowerbrush by nms 007 Tips on How to Avoid Camera Sensor Dust If you can, stick to using just one lens during the shoot. A zoom lens can take good pictures of both near and far off subjects and you could be satisfied with this compromise since the possibility of acquiring sensor dust is minimal. 

Turn off your camera as you change your lens. 

If your surroundings are really dusty, store your camera body inside a sealable plastic bag before placing it in your camera bag. This will provide extra protection and in this scenario, you can’t be too careful. 

While your camera is resting, leave it upright and not on its back so there’s less chance dust could fall in to the sensor. 


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Using Strobes in Underwater Photography

In a previous article, we discussed how ambient light can be used in underwater photography. This time we will find out how submersible flash units or strobes are used to illuminate a subject or an entire scene. 

Since water is much denser than air, light underwater is absorbed faster and at a shorter distance compared to light above the water surface. In cases when ambient light is simply not enough to adequately light up a scene, strobes come to the rescue by providing bright light even at deeper nudibranch by hamletnc Using Strobes in Underwater Photographyocean levels. Another asset of using strobes is that they can show off the subject’s real colors.  One of the properties of water is it lets the blue end of the spectrum pass through deeper than all the other color wavelengths, which makes underwater scenes acquire a blue cast. Strobe lights, with their complete light spectrum, can illuminate the subject or scene and present all the colors as they really are, without the predominant bluish color cast. Strobes can also act as octopussy by hamletnc Using Strobes in Underwater Photographyfill light by lighting up the foreground or the dark areas of a subject while ambient light illuminates the rest of the scene.

Aside from presenting the subject’s color in full, there are other key differences between the results of strobe light and ambient light. Strobes can effectively freeze action since it can rapidly blast bright light. This allows for a fast shutter speed and there is no worry that camera or subject movement might cause the shot to come out blurry. Strobes will also provide strong light at short distances, and subjects taken at close up can be better illuminated. The added advantage to this is you can use a smaller aperture which means your camera covers a greater depth of field allowing more of the scene to be in focus. Strobes are not as useful in long distances, however, since the strobe light is absorbed by water. Distances of five feet or more no longer get illuminated and this is where ambient light can come in handy since it can encompass a larger area. 

If you’re using only one strobe, try positioning it above and to the side of the camera, at a 45 degree angle diverstrobes by baltar Using Strobes in Underwater Photographyto the subject. This lessens the appearance of visible particles (a.k.a. backscatter) in the water which can cloud up the image. Two strobes are ideal to lessen hard shadows that can appear if only one strobe were used. Using a pair of strobes on either side of the subject will provide more even lighting. Have one of the strobes provide lesser output to show a light shadow that will give the impression of depth. If the two strobes were giving off equal light output, the subject can come out looking flat and bland.  

Keep in mind that strobe lights can be rather bulky and effort is required to set them up and maintained in proper position. Assistance from a dive buddy would be nice but if you don’t have one, you can use strobe arms with success. These arms are articulated for better positioning control of the direction of the strobe lights. 


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iPhoneography, The Fresh Medium of Expression

 

When the iPhone came out in 2007, most people ignored its camera feature in favor of tinkering with the more exciting capabilities such as podcasts and internet surfing through Wi-Fi. It was difficult to get animated over a 2MP camera that hardly had any adjustment settings. Then along came the camera apps which opened up a world of potential and the new hobby dubbed as ‘iPhoneography’ was born.

house1 iPhoneography, The Fresh Medium of ExpressionThe concept is very simple. iPhoneography is taking pictures using your iPhone. Some people choose to also post process the image in the iPhone using photo apps while others prefer to upload the image files in their PC or laptop and post process using photo editing programs such as Adobe Photoshop. The rest don’t bother post processing at all and just upload them directly into the internet. Purists believe that once the image has been processed outside of the iPhone, that it can no longer be considered iPhoneography. Others maintain that one should strive for image quality and intended result which may need to be achieved using PC programs instead of iPhone apps. It all boils down to personal preference and I say just do whatever works for you.

One major appeal of taking pictures with the iPhone is that as long as you have Wi-Fi connection, you can upload your images straight into the internet (right after you take them!) without having to pass through a computer. You can add them to your online photo album or share them in your social networking site with a few flicks of the finger. How much more convenient or quicker can it get? Another asset is being able to edit those pictures straight from the iPhone through the use of photo editing apps. Also, since the phone camera is very limited in its built-in adjustment settings, it forces you to become more imaginative in creating the image to make it look more than just a regular snapshot. Add all these to the attraction of cellular photography in general, which are portability of device, discreet and unobtrusive capturing of everyday life, and easy access, and you get a very powerful photographic tool.

With all these advantages, it is easy to ignore the fact that these cameras have a low megapixel count. The 2G and 3G iPhones have 2MP cameras while the 3GS has a 3MP camera. The latest version, the iPhone 4, has a camera with 5MP. The difference in quality between 2MP and 5MP is astounding but that doesn’t mean you can’t create great photos with an iPhone 2G.

Of course, a major part of the fun for iPhoneography is to take advantage of the many photo apps that are available in the App Store. A lot of them could be improved, but there are also apps which can inject a good dose of WOW! into a dull shot with just a flick of your index finger.  If, like me, you are just discovering the world of iPhone camera apps and what they can do for your shots, you might find out there are so many of them! You might feel overwhelmed with the number of apps that you might get confused as to which to choose. There are free apps and usually the paid ones range from 99 cents to $4.99. A lot of the camera apps have very similar functions. My advice is to read the reviews first before buying the app.There are sites devoted to iPhoneography. Flickr, for example has huge groups at http://www.flickr.com/groups/takenwithiphone/ and http://www.flickr.com/groups/iphoneography/. They have group pools where members share their photos and also discussions where members can share their latest app finds or tips. One of the leading blog sites is http://www.iphoneography.com/ which is a treasure trove of informative reviews about the latest apps. Time to time, it also includes write ups about people who have become dedicated to this medium (called ‘iPhoneographers’).

If you have an iPhone and haven’t yet experimented with its camera capabilities, try doing so now and don’t be surprised if you get hooked faster than your finger can tap on the upload button.


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An Overview of the Different Image File Formats

You may have seen some of these acronyms after the file names of your images and wondered what exactly they mean. These are called file formats and are the different ways your photos will be processed and converted by the camera when being stored as a digital file. Each one has its own characteristics that affect how your image will look when you view it.

There are two kinds of conversions: lossy and lossless. File formats that discard data captured by the camera are called ‘lossy’. They cut down on certain photographic details that our eyes might not perceive. Lossy conversions will also diminish the size of the original image data file. On the other hand, lossless conversions retain all of the data that your camera captures.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) – this is probably the most commonly used image format since all photo editing programs and digital cameras can manage it. It is a lossy conversion, which means data is stripped and compressed. This allows more space in the camera’s memory card for more image files to be stored. Since data is removed, this can affect image quality. If there is too much compression, the photos can appear pixelated.

RAW – this is not an acronym. Meaning ‘unprocessed’, RAW is also often referred to as ‘digital negative’. This is a lossless conversion where all the image data remains intact and can be retrieved with a RAW converter program. This is a great advantage for serious photographers who want to have full control over what image data to keep and what to remove during post processing. Not all digital cameras are capable of RAW and not all photo editing programs can handle them, either. Many photographers whose cameras do have this function might not make use of it since it takes longer to process due to the huge file data.

TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) – also a lossless format, these have big files and can therefore be used to produce high quality pictures. TIFF files are very flexible which is what makes them also complex. They can be compressed like JPEGs but not to a great extent.

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) – created in the 1980s, it is a lossy conversion format that compresses 16 million colors to only 256. This is the preferred format compared to JPEG for images that use only a few colors, those with large sections of the same color, and pure black and white images such as line drawings.

PNG (Portable Network Graphics) – another lossless conversion, this was created to improve upon the older GIF format. There is no worry that this format might not be recognized since it is accepted by all current web browsers. It can compress more efficiently than GIF although there is not that big a difference.


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What Camera Should I Buy

Are you venturing into the world of photography and are wondering what would be the perfect camera to buy? Or are you planning to upgrade that old-timer which seems to visit the repair shop too often? There are so many cameras in the market these days and the various features that manufacturers and camera shops are parading are not making it any easier to arrive at a decision. Ask yourself a few probing questions before you buy a camera:

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